Smart Water Purifier Market Forecast to 2028

Smart Water Purifier Market Forecast to 2028 - COVID-19 Impact and Global Analysis - Connectivity (Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, and Smart App), Technology (Ultra-Filtration (UF), Ultraviolet (UV), Reverse Osmosis, Multi-stage purifiers, and Others), End User (Residential, Commercial, and Industrial), Sales Channel (Retail Store, Direct Sales, and Online)

Report Code : TIPRE00020283 | Region : Global | Industry : Electronics and Semiconductor | Published Date : 17/Feb/2022

The smart water purifier market was valued at US$ 1,732.23 million in 2021 and is projected to reach US$ 2,885.26 million by 2028. It is expected to grow at a CAGR of 7.6% from 2021 to 2028.

A large portion of the world population lacks sufficient access to safe water services. Advancements in water utilities and launch of new water purification technologies are needed. The quality of water differs as per the source. As a result, a single water purification solution cannot be used globally. Thus, there is a high demand for effective water purification systems.

Speaking of which, nanotechnology-based water filtration processes use a wide variety of methods to alter minerals at an atomic or molecular level. They are highly efficient, modular, and more cost-effective than traditional water filtration processes, which is making it a trending technology in smart water purifier market.

Automated variable filtration (AVF) is a simple process in which the upper flow of influent is cleansed by the downward flow of filter media. It removes the requirement for any further filter media cleaning method or freshwater. Moreover, photocatalysis-based water treatment has gained popularity in recent years due to its efficacy in purifying polluted water. In this process, toxic chemicals are removed from water using photocatalysts and ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Theses advancements in the water purification techniques contributes to the expansion of smart water purifier market.

Health concerns do not just drive the re-mineralization trend. The taste of water, particularly bottled water, is a contentious issue, and trace minerals are now widely recognized as an essential flavor component. For instance, BWT uses unique magnesium technology to return magnesium to the water throughout the filtering process, ensuring a superior flavor. These factors are likely to play a crucial role in the global smart water purifier market in the coming years.

Despite the water purifier business falling under essential services, the supply chain disruption caused by the COVID-19 pandemic has substantially impacted global smart water purifier market growth. In key manufacturing countries, continuous or partial lockdowns resulted in short-term production halts and schedule shifts. For instance, due to 'shelter in place' instructions from governance, Pentair PLC, a leading supplier of water purification systems, had a production slowdown and operating halt. However, as manufacturers and tier 1, 2, and 3 distributors develop business continuity plans and mitigation techniques, the worldwide smart water purifier market is expected to recover in the upcoming years

Many North American countries had imposed movement restrictions during the COVID-19 pandemic. The pandemic caused severe supply chain disruption as water purification is labor-intensive. Many enterprises import filters from Asian countries. A lack of material was compounded due to staff shortage caused by the illness. Due to logistical issues, many businesses could not complete previous orders on schedule. As a result, they were forced to deal with a capital shortage, limiting their growth. Companies resumed operations as lockdown restrictions were gradually lifted, and the industries were declared "essential." During the pandemic, many companies advertised the benefits of pure water to increase customer awareness of their services. This tendency has given the smart water purifier market a boost after being severely impacted in the previous year.

The overall global smart water purifier market size has been derived using primary and secondary sources. Exhaustive secondary research has been conducted using internal and external sources to obtain qualitative and quantitative information related to the market. The process also serves the purpose of obtaining an overview and forecast for the smart water purifier market concerning all the segments. Also, multiple primary interviews have been conducted with industry participants and commentators to validate the data and gain more analytical insights into the topic. Participants in this process include industry experts, such as VPs, business development managers, market intelligence managers, national sales managers, and external consultants, including valuation experts, research analysts, and key opinion leaders specializing in the smart water purifier market.

According to the latest research report titled "Smart Water Purifier Market Forecast to 2028 – COVID-19 Impact and Global Analysis," published by The Insight Partners, the market is expected to reach US$ 2,885.26 million by 2028, registering a CAGR of 7.6% during 2021–2028.

Rising Awareness Regarding Waterborne Diseases to Drive Market During Forecast Period

The absorption of microscopic organisms—such as bacteria and viruses—in water bodies and contact with excretion results in water contamination, leading to waterborne diseases. Thousands of people die each year due to the spread of waterborne illnesses such as cholera, typhoid, and diarrhea, especially in emerging and third-world countries where safe and clean water is scarce. The lack of cleanliness is another leading cause of severe infections. Drinking clean and pure water from water purifiers is best to avoid contracting waterborne infections.

For instance, KENT Grand Star is an advanced RO smart water purifier that includes several purification processes, such as RO+UV+UF+TDS Control + UV In-tank to offer customers 100% clean drinking water. The Zero Water Wastage Technology on the KENT Grand Star Mineral RO Water Purifier ensures that no water is wasted throughout the purifying process. Therefore, the rising awareness regarding waterborne disease is promoting the growth of the smart water purifier market.

The COVID-19 outbreak had a drastically adverse impact on the world economy during its peak in 2020 and continues to shatter several countries' economies and industries. Until the pandemic, the smart water purifier market was experiencing a substantial growth. However, the outbreak of the virus led to a noteworthy slowdown in the production activities of various industries deploying the use of smart water purifiers. Various containment measures, such as lockdowns, business shutdowns, and trade restrictions, negatively impacted the production and supply chain of the smart water purifier market until the second half of 2020 and during the second large outbreak in 2021.

Key Findings of Study

The global smart water purifier market has been spread across North America, Europe, Asia Pacific (APAC), the Middle East & Africa (MEA), and South America (SAM). In the bottled water industry, alkaline and pH-balanced water have become increasingly popular, and the smart water purifier market is competing vigorously. Spiraling demand for wellness products and commodities is strengthening their cause. Businesses throughout the Consumer-Packaged Goods (CPG) market compete for a piece of the US$30 billion spent on supplementary health treatments by Americans. Health concerns do not just drive the re-mineralization trend. The taste of water, particularly bottled water, is a contentious issue, and trace minerals are now widely recognized as an essential flavor component. For instance, BWT uses unique magnesium technology to return magnesium to the water throughout the filtering process, ensuring a superior flavor. This is applicable not only for pure drinking water but also for other liquids, including coffee, espresso, and tea. These factors are likely to play a crucial role in the global smart water purifier market in the upcoming years.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1. Introduction

1.1 Study Scope

1.2 The Insight Partners Research Report Guidance

1.3 Market Segmentation

1.3.1 Smart Water Purifier Market – By Connectivity

1.3.2 Smart Water Purifier Market – By Technology

1.3.3 Smart Water Purifier Market – By End User

1.3.4 Smart Water Purifier Market – By Sales Channel

1.3.5 Smart Water Purifier Market- By Region

2. Key Takeaways

3. Research Methodology

3.1 Coverage

3.2 Secondary Research

3.3 Primary Research

4. Smart Water Purifier Market Landscape

4.1 Market Overview

4.2 PEST Analysis

4.2.1 North America

4.2.2 Europe

4.2.3 Asia Pacific

4.2.4 MEA

4.2.5 SAM

4.3 Ecosystem Analysis

4.4 Expert Opinion

4.5 Sensors in Smart Water Purifier

4.5.1 Water Flow Sensors

4.5.2 Total Dissolved Solid (TDS) Sensors

4.5.3 Temperature Sensors

4.6 Adoption Trend Analysis of IOT/Sensors-Based Water Purifier

4.7 List of Major Sensors Manufacturers For Water Purifier

5. Smart Water Purifier Market – Key Market Dynamics

5.1 Market Drivers

5.1.1 Rising Awareness Regarding Waterborne Diseases

5.1.2 Emerging Advancements in Technology

5.2 Market Restraints

5.2.1 High Equipment and Maintenance Costs

5.3 Market Opportunities

5.3.1 Increasing Demand for Smart Water Purifiers in Developing Nations

5.4 Future Trends

5.4.1 Re-Mineralization for Better Taste and Health

5.5 Impact Analysis of Drivers and Restraints

6. Smart Water Purifier Market –Regional Analysis

6.1 Smart Water Purifier Market Global Overview

6.2 Smart Water Purifier Market – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

6.3 Market Positioning – Five Key Players

6.3.1 Market Positioning – Five Key Players

7. Smart Water Purifier Market Analysis – By Connectivity

7.1 Overview

7.2 Smart Water Purifier Market, By Connectivity (2020 and 2028)

7.3 Wi-Fi

7.3.1 Overview

7.3.2 Wi-Fi: Smart Water Purifier Market – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

7.4 Bluetooth

7.4.1 Overview

7.4.2 Bluetooth: Smart Water Purifier Market – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

7.5 Smart App

7.5.1 Overview

7.5.2 Smart App: Smart Water Purifier Market – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

8. Smart Water Purifier Market – By Technology

8.1 Overview

8.2 Smart Water Purifier Market, By Technology (2020 and 2028)

8.3 Ultra-Filtration (UF)

8.3.1 Overview

8.3.2 Ultra-Filtration (UF): Smart Water Purifier Market – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

8.4 Ultraviolet (UV)

8.4.1 Overview

8.4.2 Ultraviolet (UV): Smart Water Purifier Market – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

8.5 Reverse Osmosis

8.5.1 Overview

8.5.2 Reverse Osmosis: Smart Water Purifier Market – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

8.6 Multi-stage purifiers

8.6.1 Overview

8.6.2 Multi-stage purifiers: Smart Water Purifier Market – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

8.7 Others

8.7.1 Overview

8.7.2 Others: Smart Water Purifier Market – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

9. Smart Water Purifier Market – By End User

9.1 Overview

9.2 Smart Water Purifier Market, By End User (2020 and 2028)

9.3 Residential

9.3.1 Overview

9.3.2 Residential: Smart Water Purifier Market – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

9.4 Commercial

9.4.1 Overview

9.4.2 Commercial: Smart Water Purifier Market – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

9.5 Industrial

9.5.1 Overview

9.5.2 Industrial: Smart Water Purifier Market – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

10. Smart Water Purifier Market – By Sales Channel

10.1 Overview

10.2 Smart Water Purifier Market, By Sales Channel (2020 and 2028)

10.3 Retail Store

10.3.1 Overview

10.3.2 Retail Store: Smart Water Purifier Market – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

10.4 Direct Sales

10.4.1 Overview

10.4.2 Direct Sales: Smart Water Purifier Market – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

10.5 Online

10.5.1 Overview

10.5.2 Online: Smart Water Purifier Market – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

11. Smart Water Purifier Market – Geographic Analysis

11.1 Overview

11.2 North America: Smart Water Purifier Market

11.2.1 North America: Smart Water Purifier Market – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

11.2.2 North America: Smart Water Purifier Market, By Connectivity

11.2.3 North America: Smart Water Purifier Market, By Technology

11.2.4 North America: Smart Water Purifier Market, By End User

11.2.5 North America: Smart Water Purifier Market, By Sales Channel

11.2.6 North America: Smart Water Purifier Market, by Key Country

11.2.6.1 US: Smart Water Purifier Market – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

11.2.6.1.1 US: Smart Water Purifier Market, By Connectivity

11.2.6.1.2 US: Smart Water Purifier Market, By Technology

11.2.6.1.3 US: Smart Water Purifier Market, By End User

11.2.6.1.4 US: Smart Water Purifier Market, By Sales Channel

11.2.6.2 Canada: Smart Water Purifier Market – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

11.2.6.2.1 Canada: Smart Water Purifier Market, By Connectivity

11.2.6.2.2 Canada: Smart Water Purifier Market, By Technology

11.2.6.2.3 Canada: Smart Water Purifier Market, By End User

11.2.6.2.4 Canada: Smart Water Purifier Market, By Sales Channel

11.2.6.3 Mexico: Smart Water Purifier Market – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

11.2.6.3.1 Mexico: Smart Water Purifier Market, By Connectivity

11.2.6.3.2 Mexico: Smart Water Purifier Market, By Technology

11.2.6.3.3 Mexico: Smart Water Purifier Market, By End User

11.2.6.3.4 Mexico: Smart Water Purifier Market, By Sales Channel

11.3 Europe: Smart Water Purifier Market

11.3.1 Europe: Smart Water Purifier Market – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

11.3.2 Europe: Smart Water Purifier Market, By Connectivity

11.3.3 Europe: Smart Water Purifier Market, By Technology

11.3.4 Europe: Smart Water Purifier Market, By End User

11.3.5 Europe: Smart Water Purifier Market, By Sales Channel

11.3.6 Europe: Smart Water Purifier Market, by Key Country

11.3.6.1 Germany: Smart Water Purifier Market – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

11.3.6.1.1 Germany: Smart Water Purifier Market, By Connectivity

11.3.6.1.2 Germany: Smart Water Purifier Market, By Technology

11.3.6.1.3 Germany: Smart Water Purifier Market, By End User

11.3.6.1.4 Germany: Smart Water Purifier Market, By Sales Channel

11.3.6.2 France: Smart Water Purifier Market – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

11.3.6.2.1 France: Smart Water Purifier Market, By Connectivity

11.3.6.2.2 France: Smart Water Purifier Market, By Technology

11.3.6.2.3 France: Smart Water Purifier Market, By End User

11.3.6.2.4 France: Smart Water Purifier Market, By Sales Channel

11.3.6.3 Italy: Smart Water Purifier Market – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

11.3.6.3.1 Italy: Smart Water Purifier Market, By Connectivity

11.3.6.3.2 Italy: Smart Water Purifier Market, By Technology

11.3.6.3.3 Italy: Smart Water Purifier Market, By End User

11.3.6.3.4 Italy: Smart Water Purifier Market, By Sales Channel

11.3.6.4 UK: Smart Water Purifier Market – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

11.3.6.4.1 UK: Smart Water Purifier Market, By Connectivity

11.3.6.4.2 UK: Smart Water Purifier Market, By Technology

11.3.6.4.3 UK: Smart Water Purifier Market, By End User

11.3.6.4.4 UK: Smart Water Purifier Market, By Sales Channel

11.3.6.5 Russia: Smart Water Purifier Market – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

11.3.6.5.1 Russia: Smart Water Purifier Market, By Connectivity

11.3.6.5.2 Russia: Smart Water Purifier Market, By Technology

11.3.6.5.3 Russia: Smart Water Purifier Market, By End User

11.3.6.5.4 Russia: Smart Water Purifier Market, By Sales Channel

11.3.6.6 Rest of Europe: Smart Water Purifier Market – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

11.3.6.6.1 Rest of Europe: Smart Water Purifier Market, By Connectivity

11.3.6.6.2 Rest of Europe: Smart Water Purifier Market, By Technology

11.3.6.6.3 Rest of Europe: Smart Water Purifier Market, By End User

11.3.6.6.4 Rest of Europe: Smart Water Purifier Market, By Sales Channel

11.4 APAC: Smart Water Purifier Market

11.4.1 APAC: Smart Water Purifier Market – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

11.4.2 APAC: Smart Water Purifier Market, By Connectivity

11.4.3 APAC: Smart Water Purifier Market, By Technology

11.4.4 APAC: Smart Water Purifier Market, By End User

11.4.5 APAC: Smart Water Purifier Market, By Sales Channel

11.4.6 APAC: Smart Water Purifier Market, by Key Country

11.4.6.1 Australia: Smart Water Purifier Market – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

11.4.6.1.1 Australia: Smart Water Purifier Market, By Connectivity

11.4.6.1.2 Australia: Smart Water Purifier Market, By Technology

11.4.6.1.3 Australia: Smart Water Purifier Market, By End User

11.4.6.1.4 Australia: Smart Water Purifier Market, By Sales Channel

11.4.6.2 China: Smart Water Purifier Market – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

11.4.6.2.1 China: Smart Water Purifier Market, By Connectivity

11.4.6.2.2 China: Smart Water Purifier Market, By Technology

11.4.6.2.3 China: Smart Water Purifier Market, By End User

11.4.6.2.4 China: Smart Water Purifier Market, By Sales Channel

11.4.6.3 India: Smart Water Purifier Market – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

11.4.6.3.1 India: Smart Water Purifier Market, By Connectivity

11.4.6.3.2 India: Smart Water Purifier Market, By Technology

11.4.6.3.3 India: Smart Water Purifier Market, By End User

11.4.6.3.4 India: Smart Water Purifier Market, By Sales Channel

11.4.6.4 Japan: Smart Water Purifier Market – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

11.4.6.4.1 Japan: Smart Water Purifier Market, By Connectivity

11.4.6.4.2 Japan: Smart Water Purifier Market, By Technology

11.4.6.4.3 Japan: Smart Water Purifier Market, By End User

11.4.6.4.4 Japan: Smart Water Purifier Market, By Sales Channel

11.4.6.5 South Korea: Smart Water Purifier Market – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

11.4.6.5.1 South Korea: Smart Water Purifier Market, By Connectivity

11.4.6.5.2 South Korea: Smart Water Purifier Market, By Technology

11.4.6.5.3 South Korea: Smart Water Purifier Market, By End User

11.4.6.5.4 South Korea: Smart Water Purifier Market, By Sales Channel

11.4.6.6 Rest of APAC: Smart Water Purifier Market – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

11.4.6.6.1 Rest of APAC: Smart Water Purifier Market, By Connectivity

11.4.6.6.2 Rest of APAC: Smart Water Purifier Market, By Technology

11.4.6.6.3 Rest of APAC: Smart Water Purifier Market, By End User

11.4.6.6.4 Rest of APAC: Smart Water Purifier Market, By Sales Channel

11.5 MEA: Smart Water Purifier Market

11.5.1 MEA: Smart Water Purifier Market – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

11.5.2 MEA: Smart Water Purifier Market, By Connectivity

11.5.3 MEA: Smart Water Purifier Market, By Technology

11.5.4 MEA: Smart Water Purifier Market, By End User

11.5.5 MEA: Smart Water Purifier Market, By Sales Channel

11.5.6 MEA: Smart Water Purifier Market, by Key Country

11.5.6.1 South Africa: Smart Water Purifier Market – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

11.5.6.1.1 South Africa: Smart Water Purifier Market, By Connectivity

11.5.6.1.2 South Africa: Smart Water Purifier Market, By Technology

11.5.6.1.3 South Africa: Smart Water Purifier Market, By End User

11.5.6.1.4 South Africa: Smart Water Purifier Market, By Sales Channel

11.5.6.2 Saudi Arabia: Smart Water Purifier Market – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

11.5.6.2.1 Saudi Arabia: Smart Water Purifier Market, By Connectivity

11.5.6.2.2 Saudi Arabia: Smart Water Purifier Market, By Technology

11.5.6.2.3 Saudi Arabia: Smart Water Purifier Market, By End User

11.5.6.2.4 Saudi Arabia: Smart Water Purifier Market, By Sales Channel

11.5.6.3 UAE: Smart Water Purifier Market – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

11.5.6.3.1 UAE: Smart Water Purifier Market, By Connectivity

11.5.6.3.2 UAE: Smart Water Purifier Market, By Technology

11.5.6.3.3 UAE: Smart Water Purifier Market, By End User

11.5.6.3.4 UAE: Smart Water Purifier Market, By Sales Channel

11.5.6.4 Rest of MEA: Smart Water Purifier Market – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

11.5.6.4.1 Rest of MEA: Smart Water Purifier Market, By Connectivity

11.5.6.4.2 Rest of MEA: Smart Water Purifier Market, By Technology

11.5.6.4.3 Rest of MEA: Smart Water Purifier Market, By End User

11.5.6.4.4 Rest of MEA: Smart Water Purifier Market, By Sales Channel

11.6 SAM: Smart Water Purifier Market

11.6.1 SAM: Smart Water Purifier Market – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

11.6.2 SAM: Smart Water Purifier Market, By Connectivity

11.6.3 SAM: Smart Water Purifier Market, By Technology

11.6.4 SAM: Smart Water Purifier Market, By End User

11.6.5 SAM: Smart Water Purifier Market, By Sales Channel

11.6.6 SAM: Smart Water Purifier Market, by Key Country

11.6.6.1 Brazil: Smart Water Purifier Market – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

11.6.6.1.1 Brazil: Smart Water Purifier Market, By Connectivity

11.6.6.1.2 Brazil: Smart Water Purifier Market, By Technology

11.6.6.1.3 Brazil: Smart Water Purifier Market, By End User

11.6.6.1.4 Brazil: Smart Water Purifier Market, By Sales Channel

11.6.6.2 Argentina: Smart Water Purifier Market – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

11.6.6.2.1 Argentina: Smart Water Purifier Market, By Connectivity

11.6.6.2.2 Argentina: Smart Water Purifier Market, By Technology

11.6.6.2.3 Argentina: Smart Water Purifier Market, By End User

11.6.6.2.4 Argentina: Smart Water Purifier Market, By Sales Channel

11.6.6.3 Rest of SAM: Smart Water Purifier Market – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

11.6.6.3.1 Rest of SAM: Smart Water Purifier Market, By Connectivity

11.6.6.3.2 Rest of SAM: Smart Water Purifier Market, By Technology

11.6.6.3.3 Rest of SAM: Smart Water Purifier Market, By End User

11.6.6.3.4 Rest of SAM: Smart Water Purifier Market, By Sales Channel

12. Smart Water Purifiers Market- COVID-19 Impact Analysis

12.1 Overview

12.2 North America: Impact Assessment of Covid-19 Pandemic

12.3 Europe: Impact Assessment of Covid-19 Pandemic

12.4 Asia Pacific: Impact Assessment of Covid-19 Pandemic

12.5 Middle East & Africa: Impact Assessment of Covid-19 Pandemic

12.6 South America: Impact Assessment of Covid-19 Pandemic

13. Smart Water Purifiers Market- Company Profiling

13.1 Overview

13.2 Market Initiative

13.3 New Development

13.4 Merger and Acquisition

14. Company Profiles

14.1 Virgin Pure

14.1.1 Key Facts

14.1.2 Business Description

14.1.3 Products and Services

14.1.4 Financial Overview

14.1.5 SWOT Analysis

14.1.6 Key Developments

14.2 3M

14.2.1 Key Facts

14.2.2 Business Description

14.2.3 Products and Services

14.2.4 Financial Overview

14.2.5 SWOT Analysis

14.2.6 Key Developments

14.3 A.O. SMITH WATER TECHNOLOGIES

14.3.1 Key Facts

14.3.2 Business Description

14.3.3 Products and Services

14.3.4 Financial Overview

14.3.5 SWOT Analysis

14.3.6 Key Developments

14.4 LG Electronics

14.4.1 Key Facts

14.4.2 Business Description

14.4.3 Products and Services

14.4.4 Financial Overview

14.4.5 SWOT Analysis

14.4.6 Key Developments

14.5 Livpure Smart Homes Private Limited

14.5.1 Key Facts

14.5.2 Business Description

14.5.3 Products and Services

14.5.4 Financial Overview

14.5.5 SWOT Analysis

14.5.6 Key Developments

14.6 Membrane Solutions, LLC

14.6.1 Key Facts

14.6.2 Business Description

14.6.3 Products and Services

14.6.4 Financial Overview

14.6.5 SWOT Analysis

14.6.6 Key Developments

14.7 Eureka Forbes

14.7.1 Key Facts

14.7.2 Business Description

14.7.3 Products and Services

14.7.4 Financial Overview

14.7.5 SWOT Analysis

14.7.6 Key Developments

14.8 KENT RO SYSTEMS LTD

14.8.1 Key Facts

14.8.2 Business Description

14.8.3 Products and Services

14.8.4 Financial Overview

14.8.5 SWOT Analysis

14.8.6 Key Developments

14.9 Coway USA, Inc.

14.9.1 Key Facts

14.9.2 Business Description

14.9.3 Products and Services

14.9.4 Financial Overview

14.9.5 SWOT Analysis

14.9.6 Key Developments

14.10 Xiaomi Corporation

14.10.1 Key Facts

14.10.2 Business Description

14.10.3 Products and Services

14.10.4 Financial Overview

14.10.5 SWOT Analysis

14.10.6 Key Developments

15. Appendix

15.1 About The Insight Partners

15.2 Word Index

LIST OF TABLES.

Table 1. Smart Water Purifier Market – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

Table 2. North America: Smart Water Purifier Market, By Connectivity – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

Table 3. North America: Smart Water Purifier Market, By Technology – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

Table 4. North America: Smart Water Purifier Market, By End User – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

Table 5. North America: Smart Water Purifier Market, By Sales Channel – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

Table 6. North America: Smart Water Purifier Market, by Country – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

Table 7. US: Smart Water Purifier Market, By Connectivity – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

Table 8. US: Smart Water Purifier Market, By Technology – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

Table 9. US: Smart Water Purifier Market, By End User – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

Table 10. US: Smart Water Purifier Market, By Sales Channel – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

Table 11. Canada: Smart Water Purifier Market, By Connectivity – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

Table 12. Canada: Smart Water Purifier Market, By Technology – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

Table 13. Canada: Smart Water Purifier Market, By End User – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

Table 14. Canada: Smart Water Purifier Market, By Sales Channel – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

Table 15. Mexico: Smart Water Purifier Market, By Connectivity – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

Table 16. Mexico: Smart Water Purifier Market, By Technology – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

Table 17. Mexico: Smart Water Purifier Market, By End User – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

Table 18. Mexico: Smart Water Purifier Market, By Sales Channel – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

Table 19. Europe: Smart Water Purifier Market, By Connectivity – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

Table 20. Europe: Smart Water Purifier Market, By Technology – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

Table 21. Europe: Smart Water Purifier Market, By End User – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

Table 22. Europe: Smart Water Purifier Market, By Sales Channel – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

Table 23. Europe: Smart Water Purifier Market, by Country – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

Table 24. Germany: Smart Water Purifier Market, By Connectivity – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

Table 25. Germany: Smart Water Purifier Market, By Technology – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

Table 26. Germany: Smart Water Purifier Market, By End User – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

Table 27. Germany: Smart Water Purifier Market, By Sales Channel – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

Table 28. France: Smart Water Purifier Market, By Connectivity – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

Table 29. France: Smart Water Purifier Market, By Technology – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

Table 30. France: Smart Water Purifier Market, By End User – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

Table 31. France: Smart Water Purifier Market, By Sales Channel – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

Table 32. Italy: Smart Water Purifier Market, By Connectivity – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

Table 33. Italy: Smart Water Purifier Market, By Technology – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

Table 34. Italy: Smart Water Purifier Market, By End User – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

Table 35. Italy: Smart Water Purifier Market, By Sales Channel – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

Table 36. UK: Smart Water Purifier Market, By Connectivity – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

Table 37. UK: Smart Water Purifier Market, By Technology – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

Table 38. UK: Smart Water Purifier Market, By End User – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

Table 39. UK: Smart Water Purifier Market, By Sales Channel – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

Table 40. Russia: Smart Water Purifier Market, By Connectivity – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

Table 41. Russia: Smart Water Purifier Market, By Technology – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

Table 42. Russia: Smart Water Purifier Market, By End User – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

Table 43. Russia: Smart Water Purifier Market, By Sales Channel – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

Table 44. Rest of Europe: Smart Water Purifier Market, By Connectivity – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

Table 45. Rest of Europe: Smart Water Purifier Market, By Technology – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

Table 46. Rest of Europe: Smart Water Purifier Market, By End User – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

Table 47. Rest of Europe: Smart Water Purifier Market, By Sales Channel – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

Table 48. APAC: Smart Water Purifier Market, By Connectivity – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

Table 49. APAC: Smart Water Purifier Market, By Technology – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

Table 50. APAC: Smart Water Purifier Market, By End User – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

Table 51. APAC: Smart Water Purifier Market, By Sales Channel – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

Table 52. APAC: Smart Water Purifier Market, by Country – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

Table 53. Australia: Smart Water Purifier Market, By Connectivity – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

Table 54. Australia: Smart Water Purifier Market, By Technology – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

Table 55. Australia: Smart Water Purifier Market, By End User – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

Table 56. Australia: Smart Water Purifier Market, By Sales Channel – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

Table 57. China: Smart Water Purifier Market, By Connectivity – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

Table 58. China: Smart Water Purifier Market, By Technology – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

Table 59. China: Smart Water Purifier Market, By End User – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

Table 60. China: Smart Water Purifier Market, By Sales Channel – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

Table 61. India: Smart Water Purifier Market, By Connectivity – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

Table 62. India: Smart Water Purifier Market, By Technology – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

Table 63. India: Smart Water Purifier Market, By End User – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

Table 64. India: Smart Water Purifier Market, By Sales Channel – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

Table 65. Japan: Smart Water Purifier Market, By Connectivity – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

Table 66. Japan: Smart Water Purifier Market, By Technology – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

Table 67. Japan: Smart Water Purifier Market, By End User – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

Table 68. Japan: Smart Water Purifier Market, By Sales Channel – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

Table 69. South Korea: Smart Water Purifier Market, By Connectivity – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

Table 70. South Korea: Smart Water Purifier Market, By Technology – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

Table 71. South Korea: Smart Water Purifier Market, By End User – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

Table 72. South Korea: Smart Water Purifier Market, By Sales Channel – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

Table 73. Rest of APAC: Smart Water Purifier Market, By Connectivity – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

Table 74. Rest of APAC: Smart Water Purifier Market, By Technology – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

Table 75. Rest of APAC: Smart Water Purifier Market, By End User – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

Table 76. Rest of APAC: Smart Water Purifier Market, By Sales Channel – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

Table 77. MEA: Smart Water Purifier Market, By Connectivity – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

Table 78. MEA: Smart Water Purifier Market, By Technology – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

Table 79. MEA: Smart Water Purifier Market, By End User – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

Table 80. MEA: Smart Water Purifier Market, By Sales Channel – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

Table 81. MEA: Smart Water Purifier Market, by Country – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

Table 82. South Africa: Smart Water Purifier Market, By Connectivity – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

Table 83. South Africa: Smart Water Purifier Market, By Technology – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

Table 84. South Africa: Smart Water Purifier Market, By End User – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

Table 85. South Africa: Smart Water Purifier Market, By Sales Channel – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

Table 86. Saudi Arabia: Smart Water Purifier Market, By Connectivity – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

Table 87. Saudi Arabia: Smart Water Purifier Market, By Technology – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

Table 88. Saudi Arabia: Smart Water Purifier Market, By End User – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

Table 89. Saudi Arabia: Smart Water Purifier Market, By Sales Channel – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

Table 90. UAE: Smart Water Purifier Market, By Connectivity – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

Table 91. UAE: Smart Water Purifier Market, By Technology – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

Table 92. UAE: Smart Water Purifier Market, By End User – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

Table 93. UAE: Smart Water Purifier Market, By Sales Channel – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

Table 94. Rest of MEA: Smart Water Purifier Market, By Connectivity – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

Table 95. Rest of MEA: Smart Water Purifier Market, By Technology – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

Table 96. Rest of MEA: Smart Water Purifier Market, By End User – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

Table 97. Rest of MEA: Smart Water Purifier Market, By Sales Channel – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

Table 98. SAM: Smart Water Purifier Market, By Connectivity – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

Table 99. SAM: Smart Water Purifier Market, By Technology – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

Table 100. SAM: Smart Water Purifier Market, By End User – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

Table 101. SAM: Smart Water Purifier Market, By Sales Channel – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

Table 102. SAM: Smart Water Purifier Market, by Country – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

Table 103. Brazil: Smart Water Purifier Market, By Connectivity – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

Table 104. Brazil: Smart Water Purifier Market, By Technology – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

Table 105. Brazil: Smart Water Purifier Market, By End User – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

Table 106. Brazil: Smart Water Purifier Market, By Sales Channel – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

Table 107. Argentina: Smart Water Purifier Market, By Connectivity – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

Table 108. Argentina: Smart Water Purifier Market, By Technology – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

Table 109. Argentina: Smart Water Purifier Market, By End User – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

Table 110. Argentina: Smart Water Purifier Market, By Sales Channel – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

Table 111. Rest of SAM: Smart Water Purifier Market, By Connectivity – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

Table 112. Rest of SAM: Smart Water Purifier Market, By Technology – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

Table 113. Rest of SAM: Smart Water Purifier Market, By End User – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

Table 114. Rest of SAM: Smart Water Purifier Market, By Sales Channel – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

Table 115. List of Abbreviation

LIST OF FIGURES.

Figure 1. Smart Water Purifier Market Segmentation

Figure 2. Smart Water Purifier Market Segmentation – By Geography

Figure 3. Smart Water Purifier Market Overview

Figure 4. Smart Water Purifier Market, By Connectivity

Figure 5. Smart Water Purifier Market, By Technology

Figure 6. Smart Water Purifier Market, By End User

Figure 7. Smart Water Purifier Market, By Sales Channel

Figure 8. Smart Water Purifier Market, By Geography

Figure 9. North America: PEST Analysis

Figure 10. Europe: PEST Analysis

Figure 11. Asia Pacific: PEST Analysis

Figure 12. MEA: PEST Analysis

Figure 13. SAM: PEST Analysis

Figure 14. Expert Opinion

Figure 15. Smart Water Purifier Market: Impact Analysis of Drivers and Restraints

Figure 16. Geographic Overview of Smart Water Purifier Market

Figure 17. Smart Water Purifier Market – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

Figure 18. Smart Water Purifier Market Revenue Share, By Connectivity (2020 and 2028)

Figure 19. Wi-Fi: Smart Water Purifier Market – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

Figure 20. Bluetooth: Smart Water Purifier Market – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

Figure 21. Smart App: Smart Water Purifier Market – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

Figure 22. Smart Water Purifier Market Revenue Share, By Technology (2020 and 2028)

Figure 23. Ultra-Filtration (UF): Smart Water Purifier Market – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

Figure 24. Ultraviolet (UV): Smart Water Purifier Market – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

Figure 25. Reverse Osmosis: Smart Water Purifier Market – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

Figure 26. Multi-stage purifiers: Smart Water Purifier Market – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

Figure 27. Others: Smart Water Purifier Market – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

Figure 28. Smart Water Purifier Market Revenue Share, By End User (2020 and 2028)

Figure 29. Residential: Smart Water Purifier Market – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

Figure 30. Commercial: Smart Water Purifier Market – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

Figure 31. Industrial: Smart Water Purifier Market – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

Figure 32. Smart Water Purifier Market Revenue Share, By Sales Channel (2020 and 2028)

Figure 33. Retail Store: Smart Water Purifier Market – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

Figure 34. Direct Sales: Smart Water Purifier Market – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

Figure 35. Online: Smart Water Purifier Market – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

Figure 36. Global Smart Water Purifier Market Revenue Share, By Region (2020 & 2028)

Figure 37. North America: Smart Water Purifier Market – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

Figure 38. North America: Smart Water Purifier Market Revenue Share, By Connectivity (2020 & 2028)

Figure 39. North America: Smart Water Purifier Market Revenue Share, By Technology (2020 & 2028)

Figure 40. North America: Smart Water Purifier Market Revenue Share, By End User (2020 & 2028)

Figure 41. North America: Smart Water Purifier Market Revenue Share, By Sales Channel (2020 & 2028)

Figure 42. North America: Smart Water Purifier Market Revenue Share, by Key Country (2020 & 2028)

Figure 43. US: Smart Water Purifier Market – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

Figure 44. Canada: Smart Water Purifier Market – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

Figure 45. Mexico: Smart Water Purifier Market – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

Figure 46. Europe: Smart Water Purifier Market – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

Figure 47. Europe: Smart Water Purifier Market Revenue Share, By Connectivity (2020 & 2028)

Figure 48. Europe: Smart Water Purifier Market Revenue Share, By Technology (2020 & 2028)

Figure 49. Europe: Smart Water Purifier Market Revenue Share, By End User (2020 & 2028)

Figure 50. Europe: Smart Water Purifier Market Revenue Share, By Sales Channel (2020 & 2028)

Figure 51. Europe: Smart Water Purifier Market Revenue Share, by Key Country (2020 & 2028)

Figure 52. Germany: Smart Water Purifier Market – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

Figure 53. France: Smart Water Purifier Market – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

Figure 54. Italy: Smart Water Purifier Market – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

Figure 55. UK: Smart Water Purifier Market – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

Figure 56. Russia: Smart Water Purifier Market – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

Figure 57. Rest of Europe: Smart Water Purifier Market – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

Figure 58. APAC: Smart Water Purifier Market – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

Figure 59. APAC: Smart Water Purifier Market Revenue Share, By Connectivity (2020 & 2028)

Figure 60. APAC: Smart Water Purifier Market Revenue Share, By Technology (2020 & 2028)

Figure 61. APAC: Smart Water Purifier Market Revenue Share, By End User (2020 & 2028)

Figure 62. APAC: Smart Water Purifier Market Revenue Share, By Sales Channel (2020 & 2028)

Figure 63. APAC: Smart Water Purifier Market Revenue Share, by Key Country (2020 & 2028)

Figure 64. Australia: Smart Water Purifier Market – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

Figure 65. China: Smart Water Purifier Market – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

Figure 66. India: Smart Water Purifier Market – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

Figure 67. Japan: Smart Water Purifier Market – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

Figure 68. South Korea: Smart Water Purifier Market – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

Figure 69. Rest of APAC: Smart Water Purifier Market – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

Figure 70. MEA: Smart Water Purifier Market – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

Figure 71. MEA: Smart Water Purifier Market Revenue Share, By Connectivity (2020 & 2028)

Figure 72. MEA: Smart Water Purifier Market Revenue Share, By Technology (2020 & 2028)

Figure 73. MEA: Smart Water Purifier Market Revenue Share, By End User (2020 & 2028)

Figure 74. MEA: Smart Water Purifier Market Revenue Share, By Sales Channel (2020 & 2028)

Figure 75. MEA: Smart Water Purifier Market Revenue Share, by Key Country (2020 & 2028)

Figure 76. South Africa: Smart Water Purifier Market – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

Figure 77. Saudi Arabia: Smart Water Purifier Market – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

Figure 78. UAE: Smart Water Purifier Market – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

Figure 79. Rest of MEA: Smart Water Purifier Market – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

Figure 80. SAM: Smart Water Purifier Market – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

Figure 81. SAM: Smart Water Purifier Market Revenue Share, By Connectivity (2020 & 2028)

Figure 82. SAM: Smart Water Purifier Market Revenue Share, By Technology (2020 & 2028)

Figure 83. SAM: Smart Water Purifier Market Revenue Share, By End User (2020 & 2028)

Figure 84. SAM: Smart Water Purifier Market Revenue Share, By Sales Channel (2020 & 2028)

Figure 85. SAM: Smart Water Purifier Market Revenue Share, by Key Country (2020 & 2028)

Figure 86. Brazil: Smart Water Purifier Market – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

Figure 87. Argentina: Smart Water Purifier Market – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

Figure 88. Rest of SAM: Smart Water Purifier Market – Revenue and Forecast to 2028 (US$ Million)

Figure 89. Impact of Covid-19 Pandemic in North American Country Markets

Figure 90. Impact of Covid-19 Pandemic in Europe Country Markets

Figure 91. Impact of Covid-19 Pandemic in Asia Pacific Country Markets

Figure 92. Impact of Covid-19 Pandemic in Middle East & Africa Country Markets

Figure 93. Impact of Covid-19 Pandemic in South America Country Markets

The List of Companies - Smart Water Purifier Market

1. Virgin Pure

2. 3M

3. A.O. SMITH WATER TECHNOLOGIES

4. LG Electronics

5. Livpure Smart Homes Private Limited

6. Membrane Solutions, LLC

7. Eureka Forbes

8. KENT RO SYSTEMS LTD

9. Coway USA, Inc

10. Xiaomi Corporation

• Save and reduce time carrying out entry-level research by identifying the growth, size, leading players and segments in the global smart water purifiers market.

• Highlights key business priorities in order to assist companies to realign their business strategies

• The key findings and recommendations highlight crucial progressive industry trends in the global smart water purifiers market, thereby allowing players across the value chain to develop effective long-term strategies.

• Develop/modify business expansion plans by using substantial growth offering developed and emerging markets.

• Scrutinize in-depth global market trends and outlook coupled with the factors driving the market, as well as those hindering it.

• Enhance the decision-making process by understanding the strategies that underpin commercial interest with respect to client products, segmentation, pricing and distribution.

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